Organic farming of pumpkin; ways to cultivate

Organic farming is a technique of farming that enhances the growth of crops and maintains the quality of the yields. The main source of organic farming is eco-friendly products. Manures, fertilizers and pesticides are the by-products of our environment. So this technique improves our health by increasing the nutrient content in the yields.

Here we are going to discuss about the farming techniques of pumpkin.

Pumpkin is a large round vegetable that is used in most of our dishes. They are orange in colour and are a dense food. Pumpkins are rich in nutrients and have very less calorie content.

Pumpkin is a commonly found vegetable with good content of beta carotene. This content is responsible for the orange colour of the vegetable. Apart from food, they also act as a good source of medicine which can cure cancer, asthma, heart diseases and control muscular degeneration. They are also used as an ingredient in sweets.

Pumpkin belongs to the family of Cucurbita and Cucurbitaceae. They are warm season crops but are also grown in humid and rainy seasons. In India, they are grown during the rainy season.

The best soil preferred for the growth of pumpkin is loamy soil with good drainage property and has a required amount of humus and organic matter. The temperature of the soil should be maintained to 15 degree Celsius for better seed germination. The basic temperature required for pumpkin plants are 15-27 degree Celsius. Never allow the soil to get cold because it may result in the wilt of the roots. For efficient growth, the soil pH should be between 6.5-7.5.

To increase the growth and make them healthy, compost is applied. Relatively a warmer climate is suitable for the development of the crops. In addition to compost, green manure is also applied. When the crop attains maturity, they are provided with Nitrogen because these crops are heavy feeders of Nitrogen. In most of the cases, the organic matters are applied directly to the soil, but in some cases they are mixed with water and are supplied through drip irrigation.

To make the crops resistant from pest fish emulsion, seaweed or garlic extract is used. The standard spacing between two pumpkin crops is 45-60 cm.

While selecting the seeds, buy them from a trusted seed provider. Make sure that they will give quality yields and are resistant from pests and diseases. The pumpkin seeds tend to sprout after 5 days of planting.

Pumpkin crops are also grown indoors. Even in night time, they require warmer temperature and cannot withstand cool overnights.

The major organic matters applied to pumpkin crops are fish bone meal, Alfalfa meal, kitchen compost and farmyard manure.

The weeds can cause severe destruction to pumpkin crops. To prevent them, the soil beneath the crop is covered with dry straw or black plastic sheet.

The required water availability of pumpkin crops is one to two inches per week. Here drip irrigation or sprinklers are used. These techniques reduce the probability of fungal infection.

The major pest which harms pumpkin includes:

  • Cucumber beetles
  • Squash bugs
  • Squash vine borers
  • Aphids

To remove these pests, organic pesticides are used.

Commonly seen diseases in pumpkin crops include:

  • Bacterial wilt
  • Powdery mildew
  • Downy mildew
  • Anthracnose

These fungal diseases can be avoided if there is a proper air flow within the farm. Organic fungicides are sprayed to avoid them.

The harvesting period of pumpkin is when the skin colour changes from orange to pale brown. These vegetables last for some days without getting decayed. So this helps us to transport them to distant places. To ensure the maturity of pumpkin, we just force our nail into them. If it cannot be easily poked, then they are ready for harvesting.

Elon Musk giveaway scam; Twitter post puts man in financial crisis

Scams are now trending in social media. Scammers are creating newer methods to influence the users and make them fall for their tarp. The major ones are the gift scams and the giveaway scams which keep on coming up that compromises personal information of people. The scammers put up the scams in such a way that they look so legitimate. To add genuinity to the scams, they attach personal reviews of people and details of people who got advantage through this scam. When we see more people are into this, automatically we would try that out. It is always like that, people like to follow the crowd!

Recently, a man named Sebastian was tricked of a fake Elon Musk Giveaway scam in which he lost around 407,000 Euros.

One night Sebastian and his wife was sitting in their couch and watching Netflix. Suddenly Sebastian received a notification in Twitter from Elon Musk. The post had a description and a link. He clicked the link of the genuinely looking tweet and saw that Elon Musk was giving away double money for Bitcoins.

He was lead to a genuinely looking website where the giveaway was taking place in full swing.

The giveaway was limited to a particular time limit and it promised users that they could double the money. The giveaway was conducted by the leading car manufacturer, Tesla headed by the CEO Elon Musk. They asked for Bitcoin ranging from 0.1 to 20 so that they can double the amount and give it back.

  • Bitcoin = 4,300 Euros

20 Bitcoin = 860,000 Euros

The scam looked very genuine as if it was the carbon copy of Elon Musk’s twitter account. It even had a verification blue tick. Sebastian went through the post, checked the account and found no sceptism. He believed that the post is true and can double his amount. Now he was confused whether he has to send 5 or 10 Bitcoin. But while thinking about getting more money, he fixed the number 10. He successfully sent the Bitcoin through the transaction page in the link and waited for his amount to arrive in the Bitcoin wallet. After every minute, he felt nervous and kept on refreshing the screen.

He went on looking at the wallet till the timer went down. At the end he realized that he was a victim of a big scam.

As a person who lost half of his savings, he tried to contact the scammers and tweeted them to get a portion of his money back. But there was no response. Lately he stopped trying and considered his money gone forever.

Sebastian was one among several victims affected by this scam.

Cyber security officials have reported that the scammers are on their way making a huge amount of money in 2021. As per the records and cases reported, they have already earned 18 million Euros in the first three months of 2021.

From the time giveaway scams have emerged, the scammers are following a same pattern and strategy. But we are not able to control them and stop them from affecting people. In some cases, they create a fake account and steal money. In some other situations, they steal the account having verified tick to make the scam look legitimate.

Twitter is the most targeted platform used by the scammers. But they also launch giveaway scams through Youtube, Facebook and Instagram.

We may think people falling for these scams are stupid but as per the studies, the people who have lost Bitcoin are very articulate and well educated.

Sebastian agrees to the fact that this happened not because of his stupid behaviour but due to his greedy towards money. This greedy feeling of people is being utilized by the scammers to earn money.

He filed a complaint against this atrocity and believes that Bitcoin exchanges will be proactively helping him out.

The biggest giveaway scam that happened in Twitter was during 2020, when the scammers took over the accounts of celebrities like Bill gates, Kim Kardashan etc. Here they stole around 118,000 dollars. But eventually they were arrested.

How to prevent Giveaway scams in social media?

  • Before clicking on a link, verify the source and check whether they are from trusted sources.
  • Always read the statement and check out for spelling and grammatical errors.
  • Never share personal information, financial details, passwords and OTP to anyone.
  • When you come across something suspicious, report them immediately.

Organic farming of radish; points to keep in mind

Organic farming is a strategy of farming that utilizes natural resources to produce better yield from the crops. The main intention of this technique is to stay in harmony with the nature, without affecting the micro-organisms, insects and other living organisms. It is a kind of give and take policy. We give organic manures, fertilizers and pesticides to the crops and we get back good quality organic yields.

Here we are going to look into the farming techniques of radish.

Radish comes under the category of rooted vegetables. The major characteristics of radish which makes it different from other vegetables are its skin colour, crunch-flesh and spicy-peppery taste. Radishes are available in short, long, round and narrow shapes.

The scientific name of radish is Raphanus Sativa. Radish originated in Southeast Asia and Central Asia. Apart from using them as vegetables, they have high medicinal value. They contain compounds like glucosinolate and isothiocyanate which helps to optimize the sugar level in our blood.

Radish belongs to the family ‘Crucifearea’ and is usually grown in tropical and temperate regions. Radish is a major part of salad in different countries. The leaves of radish are also edible and are a rich source of vitamin A.

The preferred type of soil for radish cultivation is sandy loam soil rich with organic matter. The standard pH range for the cultivation of radish is 5.5-6.8. Optimum temperature to have a good yield is 15 degree Celsius.

Before planting the land is ploughed thoroughly and the weeds are removed completely. Next, farmyard manure is applied to the soil. Usually decomposed or dry cow dung is not applied for radish crops. During the soil preparation, undecomposed matter are sorted and removed because it may often lead to forking of roots or misshaped roots.

Radish crops are best suited in spring and autumn climates. They are also capable to tolerate mild winter frosts. For the efficient growth of the crops conditions like light sunlight, ample rain and soil with good drainage system is required. Radishes are crops which consumes a lot of phosphorus. So before planting, the soil is applied with a good quantity of bone meal. Nitrogen is good for the growth of root bulbs but too much of them could deteriorate their growth. Provide Nitrogen in required quantities.

For effective growth of bulbs, the soil needs to be kept moist.

For the germination of radish seeds, they are kept on cold conditions. Seeds can also germinate under the temperature range of 4-32 degree Celsius. When the seeds are sown, after 5-10 days, the seedlings start to pop-up. Seeds are planted and germinated during season of spring or fall.

Some farmers practice the method of applying dirt on top of the seeds and germinating them instead of planting them.

Radish does not take much time to grow. They grow fast. So, the soil needs to be provided with rich nutrients.

Major organic compounds applied to radish crops are:

  • Farmyard manure – 25-40 tonnes
  • Nitrogen – 18-50 Kg
  • Phosphorus – 50 Kg
  • Potassium – 50 Kg

Moisture content in the soil is an important factor for the growth of radish. The first irrigation is planned after the sowing process. Based on the climatic conditions and type of soil, the crops are irrigated once in two weeks. Over irrigation may damage the crop.

Radish crops shares a bond with cabbage. So they are affected by the same pests and diseases as that of cabbage. Since the radish bulbs are below the soil, pests do not affect them. But they vigorously affect the leaves and destroy them. The bulbs inside the soil should be protected from root maggots. Root maggots are similar to houseflies but have the capability to make burrows and reach out for the bulbs. The only way to prevent them is to use row covers before the plant comes up.

Flea beetles are another kind of pest that infects the radish crops. They usually feed upon the leaves and stems of the plant which leads to the weakening of the plant and gradually death. One way to kill these insects is by attracting necessary insects that eats these harmful insects and pests.

Radishes are readily harvested after 20-30 days. Once the root has turned plump, they are ready to harvest.

Organic farming of beetroot; points to remember

Organic farming plays an important role in bringing up a healthy generation by providing good quality food products with high level of nutrients. People are fed up eating conventional food products which uses chemicals fertilizers, manure and pesticides to nurture the yields. These chemicals can cause harm to humans and reduces the life span. The conventional farming technique is also harmful for the environment and it destroys the balance between nature and living organisms.

Here we are looking at the ways to cultivate organic beetroot.

Beetroot is an essential vegetable which is a part of our food culture. Beetroot comes under the category of root vegetables and are also known as garden beet, red beet or table beet. The scientific name of beetroot is Beta Vulgaris. Beetroot is rich with fibre and other nutrients like folate, iron, manganese, potassium and vitamin C.

The major health benefit of beetroot cultivated in organic way is that it improves blood flow and decreases blood pressure. Beetroot comes in different colors like dark purple, red, yellow, white and pink. The antioxidants present in beetroot helps to prevent cancer and heart related problems

Major organic beetroot varieties cultivated in India are:

  • Crimson globe
  • Detroit dark red
  • Early wonder
  • Carcosby Egyptian

The preferred climate for beetroot cultivation is cold climate. But still they are grown round the year. The cold temperature helps the plant to produce superior quality roots. The plant gives yield in hot conditions, but the color, texture and quality can be attained only in cold conditions.

Beetroots are grown in every soil type but the preferred one are loose loamy sandy soil which is well drained and has the presence of humus in it. Heavy soil is not preferred for beetroot cultivation. For effective yields, the pH range of the soil should be between 6.3-7.5

Beetroot propagation is done using seeds. Seeds are sown inside pits which are 1.5 cm in depth and each seeds are maintained a distance of 7cm. The correct time to sow seeds are Mid-April or Mid-July. After proper irrigation, seedlings start to sprout after 15 days. A mature beetroot plant can reach a height of 9 cm.

According to the reports, one tone of beetroots removes 2kg of Nitrogen, 4 kg of Potash and 4 kg of Potassium from the soil. So, it is necessary to provide the soil with these lost nutrients. Per hectare, 50-70 kg of Nitrogen, 100-120 kg of Potash and 60-80 kg of potassium is applied to the soil.

Before planting, the soil is ploughed and mixed with compost and farmyard manure to enhance the sprouting and in the further growth.


Beetroot plants lack Boron. So necessary Boric acid or Borax is applied to the soil.

During germination, the seeds need plenty of water. Once the plant becomes mature, irrigation is done at proper intervals. Over irrigation in beetroot plant improves the growth of leaves and reduces the growth of roots making them vulnerable to bolting.

Weeds pose a major threat to beetroot plants. They consume every nutrient supplied to the beetroot crops. Commonly weeds are removed by hand weeding.

Beetroot crops are less affected by pests. The major disease which affects beetroot crops are leaf spots. It can be easily recognizable. The condition is severe during wet conditions. Planting rotation crops helps to suppress leaf spot to an extent. In rare cases Root-knot nematodes creates inflammation in the roots. Sometimes the affected leaves are removed to reduce the spreading.

Harvesting of beetroot is carried out after nine weeks of sowing the seeds. Initial beetroot bulbs are 2.5 cm in diameter. They will be very tender and can be used for salads. The harvesting process is carried out until the beetroot reaches 8 cm diameter which are then stored.

Connected cars; security researchers reveals possibility of cyber attack

In modern world, technology is a thing that gets updated day by day. Developers and scientists are working on the possibilities of new inventions that can make human life easier.

Let’s take the example of cars. In the beginning it was just a running mechanical part. But gradually the features got added up and now we are in the era where we have automated cars with internet connection and many other facilities. Technology is getting updated. Still, a coin will have two sides. Every invention has a brighter side and a darker side.

Researchers claims that the modern features built in the new cars are inviting serious cyber-attacks. As new generation cars have internet facility and can be connected to more than one system, they are vulnerable to data breaches which can remotely access and manipulate the data of the systems. This can cause major problems such as leak of personal information, compromise to the security mechanism and can even take control of the vehicle.

This is dangerous!

Nowadays car manufacturing is a team work of innovative automakers, software developers and tech companies. It is not just the engine and the mechanical parts that makes today’s car efficient. Apart from driving, people seek for entertainment, information options as well as internet connection.

The modern cars today are increasingly dependent on applications, sensors, vehicle to vehicle communication and other useful features which allow the driver to interact with service providers and infrastructures.

The excessive growth in the technology of cars has made hackers to target them and to gain the control of the cars. The hacking can be used for both commercial and criminal purposes. Some attacks are performed silently, without the concern of the owner. Once the system of a car is compromised, the hackers can easily get the access of your trip history, geo location, financial data etc.

Like all other connected systems, car functions pose some vulnerability which is exploited by the cyber hackers.  There are developers who have replaced the concept of physical ignitions with keyless systems, which depend on mobile applications. Since most of the features in car are being connected to mobile device, it becomes easy for the hackers to get into the system of the car.

While hacking, the hackers mainly target majority controls like acceleration, brakes, steering etc. Along with that they also find a way to steal personal informations and performance statistics.

However, cryptography can be used to protect our cars from cyber-attacks. Knowing this criterion, the hackers try to break the cryptography keys by performing several reverse engineering techniques. They try to insert compiled code and analyses whether it can break the keys. Or, they will look out for the warning signs like ‘Engine failure’ or ‘brakes disabled’ to activate them.

Major threats faced by connected cars

  • Vehicle component complexity

The major functions of the car such as powerstrain, body control subnet, chassis control subnet and infotainment subnet along with external components like Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, USB etc. can be the vulnerabilities which the hacker focuses to launch the attack

  • Power grid disruption

We have fuel consuming cars as well as electric cars. Both are vulnerable to attacks. While infecting the electric cars, they take up the control of the power grid systems. They will cause disruption in the charging cycle and thereby compromising the system.

  • Mobile devices

In majority of the cars, mobile phone is used as a stimulator to control key functions, headlights, locks, wipers etc. So by infecting the controlling mobile phones, the hackers can take up the systems and control the vehicle.

All these happenings can be avoided by the use of Application shielding. Application shielding is a technique which increases the security and can be directly added to the applications so that they will have the capability to withstand attacks. Application shielding comes with the collaboration of prevention, detection, remediation and prediction. The main aim of Application shielding is to remove the elements of reverse engineering which are susceptible to attacks. They try to complicate the code and thereby maintain the functionality. This is achieved by a technique called control flow obfuscation.

To protect the cryptographic keys from attacks, White box cryptography is used. They ensure that the keys remain invisible in the views of the hacker.

Another technique called the Integrity protection prevents the attackers from doing changes in the application code.

At times, tools such as debuggers are also used to stop cyber-attacks against cars.

Major scams spreading in Whatsapp; a detailed enquiry

Social media has become the breeding ground for upcoming scams. Since the users of social media are increasing day by day, it becomes easy for the attackers to find a target and leak their sensitive information and financial data.

Whatsapp is media used by people to send and receive messages instantly. Through Whatsapp we can also send messages to strangers if we have their mobile numbers. In this way a number of phishing scams are circulating in Whatsapp.

Here the hacker gains the mobile number of the target. He then sends a message with a description and a link attached to them. The description will be eye catchy and will look so legitimate that we will automatically click on the link. The link takes us to an infected website where the hidden malwares in the website attacks your device and uses them according to their wish.

By the end of March 2021, a fake free Jio recharge scam was spreading through social media. People received messages from strange numbers claiming to provide the users with free Jio recharge of RS.555.

Being a convenient messaging app, Whatsapp is being misused by the people to spread hacks and scams. The increasing number of scams threatens the privacy of the users as well as questions their security.

The scam went like this; Reliance Jio is offering Whatsapp users with a free recharge plan of Rs.555 as a token of gift to celebrate the birthday of Mukesh Ambani’s grandson. The message was attached to a link which claimed to direct you to the recharge page. They also attached the reviews of the users that their recharge was successful. The offer was valid only till March 30.

The police of Himachal Pradesh took this scam seriously and warned the public to stay away from them.

Since Whatsapp has around 2 billion users worldwide, it has become a home to such scams. Apart from these minor scams, some major scams are also being circulated in Whatsapp, where the hackers can find a way into your contact list and use them for various purposes.

Security warnings are issued to every users to be cautious about suspicious activities taking place in Whatsapp.

Here, the hacker takes down the account of a person. He then uses the contact of the user to send phishing messages. The hacker will send a message through your friend’s or family member’s account. When you receive a message from your friend, you will obviously open them and will respond to it. This time the message will not be in a friendly tone. They will send a description and a link and will ask you to enter into the link and verify your Whatsapp account. Once you feel trusted and enter your login credentials to verify, your account will be permanently compromised.

 If you come across such situation, do not panic.  Just inform the friend that his account is hacked and by changing the password and relogging into the account, he will be able to kick out the hacker.

Whatsapp fraud

Whatsapp hijack happens when hackers get hold of someone’s whatsapp account to spread malicious malware to all other contacts. Sometimes the fraudster may demand cash to avoid wrong happenings.

How does frausters do this?

  • The scammer obtains the phone number of the first target.
  • The threat actors install Whatsapp in his phone or from a new device.
  • He contacts a new victim, impersonating as the first victim.
  • The scammer says to the second one that he has unknowingly sent a verification code to his number.
  • The hacker tricks him to get the code which he then uses to compromise the account of the second target. This chain is continued.

How to identify a hacker?

  • He will always be in a rush.
  • He never wants to make phone calls.
  • Requests for payments.
  • Forces you to open a link or attachment.

How to prevent Whatsapp fraud?

  • When you receive a message from a friend asking for financial help, check the number. When you see a new number, it’s a fake.
  • Analyse the language used and the tone of his words, if it’s new to you, it’s someone else using your friend’s account.
  • While asking for money, try to call the person. If he is not picking up, it’s a fraud.
  • If you feel anything wrong, just ask him a question which is only known to you and your friend.
  • Never share OTP with anyone.
  • Always activate 2-step verification method.

Best Way to Hack Facebook Account Online

In this blog we introduce you to the best and proven methods which are used to hack Facebook accounts online. We will then take you to stepwise guidelines on how to use these methods. Also we will introduce you to ready to use tools which relay on these methods to hack an individual account on

There is only one reason due to which people want to look into someone else Facebook account.

  1. To know whether your partner have an extra affair
  2. When you get suspicious about your friends/partners activity on Facebook.

Facebook relay on high end security systems to keep their accounts safe from getting hacked. So you need to understand that it is almost impossible for a non-technical person to find a loop hole on Facebook application.

In this case there are only two methods that can be used to trick a Facebook user and then hack in to their Facebook accounts. Which are,

  1. Facebook account hacking with the help of a Key logger
  2. Use phishing to hack a Facebook account online.

An online implementation of both these methods are available to use on You can use this website to try hacking into a Facebook account in less than few minutes. The website is having a very useful and friendly interface. They have integrated the hacking methods to the back end of the website.

Facebook account hacking using Key logger.

A key logger is a malware which can intrude in to a third-party device. Once activated the malware can then copy the inputs received on the device. For ex: if you type a message on Facebook messenger, it will then copy on to the key logger. Which mean even though you type in a username and password, it will get copied to the key logger. The copied details can be received through your email. Now let’s check how to implement a key logger to hack a Facebook account.

Choose a key logger from internet and download it.

hack Facebook

 The initial step is to search and find a key logger. You can easily find a list of key-loggers on the internet. We can take as an example. It is easy to use and a free version is available as well.

Create a remote deployment of key logger

Here comes a complicated part of the hacking Facebook account using a key logger. Usually the key logger can be deployed in two ways. You can either deploy it directly on to the device or you can deploy it remotely. If you have direct access to the device, then you may prefer to install it directly on to the target device. Use your email id to configure the key logger and set a frequency for receiving emails from the key logger. Once installed you can monitor the logs received on your email to sort out the username and password.

hack Facebook account

The widely used method to hack into a remote Facebook account is to create a remote deployment for the key logger. In this part you will configure the key logger based on the information you want to collect from the device. This can be keyboard entries, screenshots etc…

Once configured, you can then generate an transmittable file of the key logger. This is then combined with a text file, email or to an image. There is a separate process to compile the transmittable key logger file with an text file or with an image. This step may find hard in the process of Facebook hacking.

Once combined the remote deployment is ready to send. You can then this deployment via an email, text message or as a clickable link. You should attach attractive text within the email which will prompt the user to download the file or to click on the link.

Once downloaded the key logger will be activated instantly and start to copy the texts immediately from the device. You can use the collected text inputs to sort the needful data. This can be then used to get access to the a Facebook account. Hacking using a remote deployment is the most used Facebook hacking method. It will take just few hours for you to hack a FB account online using this method.

Hacking Facebook account

A real working version of hacking Facebook using key logger can be found on this website. The website integrates the remote deployment method. This online system will locate Hts-log files on the account in a matter of time. They will then decrypt the collected information and get you the login information.

How to use Phishing as Facebook hack Method

Another common method which is used to hack FB accounts online is Phishing. As the name suggest this method involves tricking the user to use something else instead of the original one. Hacking Facebook account using Phishing involves the creation of a fake Facebook login page. The hacker will then direct the users to this fake page and collect the login information.

Creating a Phishing page

Facebook hacking

This step involves the creation of a fake Facebook login page which closely resembles the original Facebook login page. Using HTML coding and some styling, a normal person can create a Phishing page. A very simple way is to right click on the real Facebook login page and then check the source code. Copy the entire source code and paste it on to a index text file.

Make source page edits to capture the input entries

You have to change few codes on the source page to re-direct the input entries into your database. This will be tricky to do. Using these codes you can create a temporary log file on your website database. This temporary file is called as log files. This log file will contain the username and password typed by the user.

Facebook Hacking

You can check the log file within the database to collect the username and password. This can be used to hack in to the target’s Facebook account. A basic knowledge of coding in HTML and CSS is required to learn this type of Facebook hacking.

A Ready to use tool to Hack Facebook Account online

We would like to introduce you an online implementation of the above methods. The website application will work based on the above two methods. You can simply visit the website and enter the details of the Facebook account to be hacked.


an affordable online service aiming ordinary people who want to hack Facebook accounts. We developed a custom Facebook hacking application, especially for hacking Facebook accounts. We are continually upgrading this application to avoid conflicts with the highly secured Facebook servers.

Hope this post was helpful to provide you with information about hacking in to a Facebook account. The above two methods are considered as the best useable methods for Facebook hacking. We appreciate your valuable feedbacks about this post.